Discrete Trial Training (DTT)
Discrete Trail Training (DTT) is a specific method of teaching based on the principles of ABA. DTT breaks down skills into discrete steps and provides multiple opportunities to practice each skill. Through the use of prompting and reinforcement, children learn individual skills and then the ability to combine these skills into more
complex repertoires. Research has proven that DTT is an effective method in teaching various skills to children with autism and related disorders.
Research has shown that most children with autism have difficulty processing auditory information. Trying to make sense of language in a very verbal world is a challenge for many children. Matching the verbal words with pictures offers a second avenue to learning language. ALLS utilizes visual strategies to promote a child’s understanding and success in addition to reducing frustration when teaching new skills and addressing behavioral excesses.
Social Skills Training
For children and adults with autism and related disorders, social interaction is often a challenge. ALLS utilizes a social skills curriculum that is based on typical development. This curriculum includes social skills such as joint attention (e.g. referencing others to share enjoyment, pointing to show others something of interest), play skills (e.g. turn taking, pretend play), conversation (e.g. initiating and responding) and understanding social rules (e.g. how to be a good sport). The implementation of this curriculum utilizes ABA methods in the clinic, home, school and community settings.
Pivotal Response Training
Pivotal Response Training (PRT) is a methodology that falls under the umbrella of ABA. It is an intervention created by Koegel and Koegel of the University of California. PRT is implemented in a natural child-led, play-based setting. It is coined “pivotal” because it is believed that acquisition of needed skills enables the child to generalize and access other developmentally appropriate behaviors. PRT allows for the enhancement of 4 learning variables: motivation, self-management, response to multiple cues, and self-initiation.
Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication handicapped Children (TEACCH) is a clinical research program developed in the 1960s by Schopler and Reichler. “Structured TEACCHing” is an evidence-based intervention that utilizes visual supports to complete tasks and enable communication. Tasks are visually broken down into simple steps that allow for easier processing and organizing. The goal of “Structured TEACCHing” is to foster independence, executive functioning, and self-efficiency.
Functional Communication Training (FCT)
Functional Communication Training (FCT) is a differential reinforcement method that purposefully and positively reinforces appropriate communication as alternatives to maladaptive counterpart behaviors. It was developed by Durand and Carr in the 1980s. Children who are developmentally delayed in language and communication often display maladaptive behaviors. Using FCT, a child is taught alternate ways to communicate desires and protests in a more socially appropriate manner.